Water Quality Regulation

Water quality regulation is defined as the capacity of a forested ecosystem to maintain the concentrations of a number of pollutants (nitrate, chloride, sodium, sulfate) as well as pH levels within drinking water standards. An additional regulating service is the ability of forested ecosystems to reduce the nutrient pollution entering streams, mitigating eutrophication of waterbodies and positively impacting fish and wildlife populations valued by beneficiaries.
Nitrate regulation consists of maintaining concentrations below drinking water standards.
Regulatory standards for nitrate at Hubbard Brook were derived from New Hampshire clean water standards. 


Regulatory standards for nitrate at TLW were derived from Ontario clean water standards. 

Chloride regulation consists of maintaining concentrations below drinking water standards.
Regulatory standards for chloride at Hubbard Brook were derived from New Hampshire clean water standards. 


Regulatory standards for chloride at TLW were derived from Canadian federal water standards. 

Sulfate regulation consists of maintaining concentrations below drinking water standards.
Regulatory standards for sulfate at Hubbard Brook were derived from U.S. federal secondary water standards (EPA). 


Regulatory standards for sulfate at TLW were derived from Canadian federal water standards. 

pH regulation consists of maintaining ph levels within drinking water standards.
Regulatory standards for pH at Hubbard Brook were derived from U.S. federal secondary water standards (EPA). 


Regulatory standards for pH at TLW were derived from Canadian federal water standards. 

Pollution remediation is approximated by the ratio of incoming pollutants to outgoing pollutants (in streamflow). Total eutrophication potential is estimated using EPA's TRACI tool.
At Hubbard Brook, total nutrient pollution was estimated as the sum of total nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate (transformed using EPA TRACI to nitrogen equivalent). 


At TLW, total nutrient pollution was estimated as the sum of total nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate (transformed using EPA TRACI to nitrogen equivalent).